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Python is a versatile programming language that can be used for a wide variety of applications. Web development, scientific computing, data analytics, and artificial intelligence are just a few of the many fields that utilize python programming.
It, thus, comes as no surprise that most popular jobs require Python programming skills. Some examples include:
If your career path includes any of these roles, it is likely that you will be asked questions about Python during your job interview.
In this article, we will help you prepare for common Python-related interview questions by listing out the top 15 Python interview questions and answers, as well as tips.
When preparing for a python interview as a fresher, you may encounter a range of basic questions that are intended to assess your proficiency in the programming language and your understanding of important Python concepts.
Overall, an interviewer will be looking for evidence that you have a solid understanding of Python fundamentals and are able to apply your knowledge in real-world scenarios.
Here are the top 10 Python interview questions and answers for freshers:
This Python interview question aims to assess your knowledge of different data structures. You should also prepare to answer questions about Python dictionaries, arrays and sets.
Sample Answer: In Python, tuples are immutable, meaning that they cannot be modified once they are created. In contrast, lists are mutable and can be changed after creation. Tuples are faster than lists because they require less memory, and therefore are ideal for storing larger amounts of data.
Development environments are important when working with Python especially if you are working on multiple projects with different dependencies. This Python interview question is designed to see if you are familiar with the concept of virtual environments and if you are able to set one up.
Sample Answer: A virtual environment is an isolated Python environment that allows you to install Python libraries and packages without affecting the rest of your system. This is particularly useful when you’re working with multiple projects that have different package requirements, as it allows you to easily switch between environments and ensure that each project has the correct dependencies.
As with any programming language, debugging is an important part of the development process. This Python interview question aims to assess your debugging skills and see if you are familiar with common debuggers such as PDB and pudb.
Sample Answer: I typically use the built-in debugger, PDB, to debug my Python programs. I start by running my program with the PDB set_trace() command in strategic places to break execution and enter the debugger. Once I'm in the debugger, I use the print command to inspect variables and see what might be causing my program to break. If I'm still having trouble, I'll use the pudb module which provides a more interactive debugging experience. Overall, I find that the PDB debugger is sufficient for most of my needs but pudb comes in handy when I need a more comprehensive debugging workflow.
This is a common question in Python interviews as many data analysis tasks are performed using Python. When preparing for this question, you should brush up your knowledge of popular libraries and tools such as pandas, NumPy, scikit-learn, Matplotlib, and Jupyter notebooks.
Sample Answer: I'm very familiar with pandas, NumPy, and Matplotlib, and have a basic understanding of the Tensorflow library. I use pandas with Matplotlib for projects such as data visualization and cleaning. During my internship with PLC Corp., I worked on a data analysis project that helped the company identify trends in sales data and was able to do so using pandas and NumPy and Jupyter notebooks. I believe these tools are essential for any data scientist or analyst working with Python, and am confident in my ability to use them for various tasks.
This basic Python interview question is very common in web development jobs. It is likely that the company already uses a specific framework such as Django or Flask, so it is important to mention if you have experience with the frameworks they use.
Sample Answer: Yes, I have experience working with Django. Last year I co-worked on a project that my friend started. The project used Python and Django to create a website that aims to connect the LGBTQ community worldwide. The website is a success with 20,000 monthly unique visitors since its launch.
This is a common question asked in Python interview questions as CSV files are a popular data format. The interviewer wants to see if you know how to work with CSV files in Python and whether you are familiar with the csv module.
Sample Answer: There are multiple ways to read data from a CSV file in Python, but the most common approach and one I use the most is to use the CSV module. I create a "reader" object using the reader() function and specify the path to the CSV file as an argument. After that, I use the reader object to iterate through each row in the file and access the data in each column.
This is a common question you can expect in almost every type of job that requires Python programming skills as web scraping is a popular task for Python developers.
Sample Answer: I have a lot of experience scraping dynamic websites with Python because of the many freelance projects that I worked on since my sophomore year in college. I use a few different methods depending on the website I'm scraping. My favorite method is to use Selenium web drivers to simulate mouse clicks and keyboard events. This allows me to navigate through dynamic websites and extract content from different elements.
Mastering lambda functions is an important skill for any Python programmer, as they can greatly reduce lines of codes and make your code more concise.
Sample Answer: Python Lambda functions are great for simple tasks that do not need to be defined in a separate function. It is an anonymous inline function that you can create by defining a single expression or statement. I use lambda functions to perform simple calculations and manipulate data quickly, without having to write long lines of code.
Regex is another important concept and a key skill to master in Python. You'll likely encounter this Python interview question at some point of your career, so it's important to have a solid understanding of what Regex is and how you can use it.
Sample Answer: Regex stands for regular expression, and is often used to match or extract data from text. It is a powerful tool in Python and many other programming languages that can be used to perform complex string operations, such as splitting and combining text, searching for specific patterns, and more.
Familiarity with working with files and directories in Python is a key skill for any developer, so you can expect to get this question in your fresher Python interview.
Sample Answer: There are a few different options for working with files and directories in Python. The built-in functions os.listdir() and os.rmdir() allow you to list the contents of a directory or remove files and folders respectively, while the shutil module allows you to copy and move files across directories. Some best practices for working with files and directories in Python include using the os module for file and directory operations, using absolute paths instead of relative paths, and using try-except blocks to handle errors. I also typically create a separate directory for each project I work on to keep my files well organized.
For experienced Python professionals, more advanced Python interview questions may crop up. Examples might include discussions around the python data structures or object-oriented design principles.
You may also be asked about your past Python programming experience or write code on the spot. Here are 5 of the most common advanced Python interview questions and answers:
Experienced developers often face this advanced Python interview question. They are expected to have a good understanding of object-oriented programming concepts.
Sample Answer: A class is an easy way to quickly create objects in Python. In Python, a class is created by using the "class" keyword, followed by a class name and an opening and closing pair of parentheses. Custom classes are created by defining functions for object initialization, operations, and other tasks.
Inheritance is an important concept in object-oriented programming, and you are likely to get this interview question if you have prior Python development experience.
Sample Answer: Inheritance is the ability to create a new class from an existing class. The 5 main types of inheritance are single, multiple inheritance, hierarchical, multilevel and hybrid inheritance.
This is another common technical Python interview question that experienced developers may encounter. It is likely that you will be asked to write Python code on the spot.
Sample Answer: In Python, special methods are those that start and end with double underscores (__). They are used to implement specific tasks or behaviors within classes and objects. Some examples of special methods include __init__, which is used to initialize an object when it is created, and __str__, which allows you to define how an object should be displayed in a string format.
This is a more advanced Python interview question that may be asked of experienced developers. If you are rusty on the basics, remember to review these concepts before your interview.
Sample Answer: There are assignment operators (example: >>= __irshift__(self, other)) , unary operators (example: – __neg__(self)), comparison operators(example: != __ne__(self, other)) , and more.
Decorators are a key concept in Python, and experienced developers may be asked this question as they help with writing clean and efficient code.
Sample Answer: Decorators are used to modify the behavior of functions or classes without having to directly change the code. They are essentially wrappers that allow you to add extra functionality to an existing code. In Python, decorators are created using the "decorator" keyword and must take a function or class as an argument.
Aside from preparing answers for the most common Python interview questions, it is also a good idea to keep these 3 tips in mind.
When you're interviewing for a Python-related position, it's important to showcase your skill of writing clean, organized code. This is especially important when you're interviewing with companies that value code readability and maintainability, usually when the scale of the projects are huge and require a lot of collaboration efforts between team members.
You may be asked to write code on a whiteboard or paper during an interview, which can be very different from writing code on computers. So make sure to practice writing code on paper.
Control flows determine whether your code is executed correctly in the right sequence under any circumstances that may occur. In Python, the three main control flows are if-else statements, for loops, and while loops.
Familiarizing yourself with these concepts will help you write better code and be able to answer technical Python interview questions more effectively.
If you're interviewing for a Python-related position, it's important to be prepared for some common questions about object-oriented programming, special methods, decorators, and control flow.
With these 15 Python interview questions and answers, as well as some tips on how to answer them, you'll be one step closer to acing your Python interview.
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--- Originally written by Candy Ho ---